What Estate Planning Do I Need with a New Baby?

Congratulations parent! You have a new baby. There’s a lot to think about, but there is a vital task that should be a priority. That is making an estate plan. People usually don’t worry about estate planning when they’re young, healthy and starting a new family. However, your new baby is depending on you to make decisions that will set them up for a secure future.

Motley Fool’s recent article, “If You’re a New Parent, Take These 4 Estate Planning Steps” says there are a few key estate planning steps that every parent should take to make certain they’ve protected their child, no matter what the future holds.

  1. Purchase Life Insurance. If a parent dies, life insurance will make sure there are funds available for the other spouse to keep providing for the children. If both parents die, life insurance can be used for a guardian to raise the child or to fund the cost of college. For most parents, term life insurance is used because the premiums are affordable, and the coverage will be in effect long enough for your child to grow to an adult.
  2. Draft a Will and Name a Guardian for your Children. For parents, the most important reason to make a will is to name a guardian for your children. If you designate a guardian, you can select the person that you think shares your values and who will do a good job raising your children. This way, it’s not left to a judge to make that selection. Do this as soon as your children are born.
  3. Update Beneficiaries. Your will should say what happens to most of your assets, but you probably have some accounts with a designated beneficiary, like a 401(k), IRA, or life insurance. When you have children, you’ll need to update the beneficiaries on these accounts for your children to inherit these assets as secondary beneficiaries, so they will inherit them in the event of your and your spouse’s death. Be careful, however, to designate a custodian to take care of those funds while your children are still minors.
  4. Look at a Trust. If you die prior to your children turning 18, they can’t directly take control of any inheritance you leave for them. This means that a judge may need to appoint someone to manage assets that you leave to your child. Your child could also wind up inheriting a lot of money and property free and clear at age 18. To have more control, like who will manage assets, how your money and property should be used for your children and when your children should directly receive a transfer of wealth, ask your estate planning attorney about creating a trust. With a trust, you can designate an individual who will manage money on behalf of your children and provide instructions for how the trustee can use the money to help care for your children, as they age. You can also create conditions on your children receiving a direct transfer of assets, such as requiring your children to reach age 21 or requiring them to use the money to cover college costs. Trusts are for anyone who wants more control over how their property will help their children after they’ve passed away.

When you have a new baby, working on your estate planning probably isn’t a big priority. However, it’s worth taking the time to talk to an attorney for the security of knowing your bundle of joy can still be provided for, in the event that the worst happens to you.

Reference: Motley Fool (September 28, 2019) “If You’re a New Parent, Take These 4 Estate Planning Steps”

The Biggest Estate Planning Errors

The Biggest Estate Planning Errors
Young woman making a mistake on a pink background

Nobody likes to plan for events like aging, incapacity, or death. However, failing to do so can cause families burdens and grief, thousands of dollars and hundreds of hours. Fox Business’ recent article, “Here are the top estate planning mistakes to avoid,” says that planning for life’s unexpected events is critical. However, it can often be a hard process to navigate. Let’s look at the top estate planning mistakes to avoid, according to industry experts:

1. Failing to have a will (or one that can be located). The biggest mistake is simply not having a will. Many people wait for “a more appropriate time” to put a will together. The truth is, we all need estate planning, no matter the amount of assets a person may have. In addition to having a will prepared and executed, it needs to be findable. The Wall Street Journal says that the biggest estate planning error is simply losing a will. Make sure your family has access to any estate planning documents you create.

2. Failing to name and update beneficiaries. An asset with a beneficiary designation supersedes any terms in a will. Review your 401(k), IRA, life insurance, and any other accounts with beneficiaries after any significant life event. If you don’t have the proper beneficiary designations, income tax on retirement accounts may have to be paid sooner and your heirs will have to pay a lump sum tax immediately. Without a life insurance policy, the proceeds will have to go through probate, which means they are subject to creditors’ claims.

Another mistake that impacts people with minor children is naming a guardian for minor children and then naming the guardian as the outright beneficiary of their life insurance. If money is left to the guardian, then the proceeds are now considered the assets of the guardian and do not transfer to the minors. The cash also now faces exposure to the creditors and spouse of the guardian named as a beneficiary Instead, parents should leave the money to a trust for the children and name the guardian, or another trusted and responsible person, as the trustee of the trust.

3. Failing to consider powers of attorney for adult children. When your children reach age 18, they’re adults in the eyes of the law. If something unfortunate happens to them, you may be left without any say in their treatment or even access to their medical records. In the event that an 18-year-old becomes ill or has an accident, a hospital won’t consult with their parents if a power of attorney for health care isn’t in place. Further, without a financial power of attorney, a parent may not be able to take care of bills, make investment decisions or pay taxes without the child’s signature. This could create an issue when your child is in college—especially if he or she is attending school abroad. It is very important that when your child turns 18 that you have powers of attorney put into place.

Reference: Fox Business (October 15, 2019) “Here are the top estate planning mistakes to avoid”

Estate Planning Is for Everyone, at Every Age

As we go through the many milestones of life, it’s important to plan for what we know is coming. Equally important is planning for the unexpected. An estate planning attorney works with individuals, families, and businesses to plan for what lies ahead, says the Cincinnati Business Courier in the article “Estate planning considerations for every stage of life.” For younger families, having an estate plan is like having life insurance: it is hoped that the insurance is never needed, but having it in place is comforting.

For others, in different stages of life, an estate plan is needed to ensure a smooth transition for a business owner heading to retirement, protecting a spouse or children from creditors or minimizing tax liability for a family.

Here are some milestones in life when an estate plan is needed:

Becoming an adult. It is true that for most 18-year-olds, estate planning is the last thing on their minds. However, most states consider these people to be legal adults, and their parents no longer automatically control many things in their lives. If parents want or need to be involved with medical or financial matters, certain estate planning documents are needed. All new adults need a general power of attorney and health care directives to allow someone else to step in if something occurs.

That can be as minimal as a parent talking with a doctor during an office appointment or making medical decisions during a crisis. A HIPAA release should also be prepared. A simple will should be considered, especially if assets are to pass directly to siblings or a significant person in their life, to whom they are not married.

Getting married. Marriage unites individuals and their assets. For newly married couples, estate planning documents should be updated for each spouse. Marriage often means two individuals will merge their estate plans, so documents need to reflect this. A review of their accounts and assets is also good to make sure the new spouse becomes a joint owner, primary beneficiary, and initial fiduciary. In addition to the legal documents of wills, powers of attorney, healthcare directives, something else that needs to be updated to the name of the new spouse or trust are beneficiary designations. This is also a time to start keeping a list of assets, now that someone else may need to access accounts.

When children join the family. Whether born or adopted, the entrance of children into the family makes an estate plan especially important. Choosing guardians who will raise the children in the absence of their parents is the hardest thing to think about, but it is critical for the children’s well-being. A nomination of guardian can make the transition smoother and prevent unnecessary delays in the court system during an already difficult time. A revocable trust may be a means of allowing the seamless transfer and ongoing administration of the family’s assets to benefit the children and other family members.

Part of business planning. Estate planning should be part of every business owner’s plan. If the unexpected occurs, the business will benefit from advance planning by having a set of procedures in place. The owner’s family will also be better off, regardless of whether they are involved in the business. At the very least, business interests should be directed to transfer out of probate, allowing for an efficient transition of the business to the right people without the burden of probate estate administration.

If a divorce occurs. Divorce is a sad reality for more than half of today’s married couples. The post-divorce period is the time to review the estate plan to remove the ex-spouse, change any beneficiary designations, and plan for new fiduciaries. It’s important to review all accounts to ensure that any controlling-on-death accounts are updated. A careful review by an estate planning attorney is worth the time to make sure no assets are overlooked.

Upon retirement. Just before or after retirement is an important time to review an estate plan. Children may be grown and take on roles of fiduciaries or be in a position to help with medical or financial affairs. This is the time to plan for wealth transfer, minimizing estate taxes, and planning for incapacity.

Reference: Cincinnati Business Courier (Sep. 4, 2019) “Estate planning considerations for every stage of life.”

Second Marriages Need A Plan to Protect Children and New Spouses

There are a number of issues in estate planning that are more important in second and subsequent marriages, as discussed in the article “Estate planning documents for second marriages” from the Cleveland Jewish News. A couple who each have children from a prior marriage are planning to marry again and blend their families. Consequently, the couple needs to address income taxes, a prenuptial agreement, pension and 401(k) benefits, Social Security, college funding, cost-sharing, and estate planning documents.

Here’s an example of how important estate planning is for blended families. A couple who each have children from their prior marriages get married. Twenty years later, the husband dies. He had wanted to provide for his second wife, so his will stated that all his assets went to his wife. They had the understanding that on her death, those assets would go back to his children.

What actually occurred was that his wife lived a long time after he passed, and she simply combined their assets. When she died, the money went to her children, and her husband’s children received nothing. The husband’s children didn’t believe that he meant to do that, but because of the lack of planning, that’s exactly what happened.

What were the alternatives? He could have set up a marital trust that would have held the assets for his second wife on his death, but upon the wife’s passing, would have gone back to his children. The trust document could prohibit the wife from transferring the assets in the marital trust to her children, and instead, guarantee that any assets remaining at her death would go to his children.

It’s wonderful to have a verbal agreement with your spouse, but if you don’t set up a formal legal plan, there’s no way to be sure that assets will be distributed as intended.

Another way to ensure that children from a blended family receive what they are intended is to have an independent person or entity, like a bank or a trust company, oversee a marital trust.

Other important documents include a durable financial power of attorney, durable health care power of attorney and a living will declaration.

Just as important as remarriage, anyone who has been divorced needs to review their estate planning documents to ensure that they reflect their new marital status, especially when they marry again. That is also the time to review beneficiary designations that appear on insurance policies, 401(k)s, pensions, retirement accounts, and investment accounts.

There’s no “set it and forget” plan for estate documents, so before you walk down the aisle a second time, or shortly after you do so, speak with an estate planning attorney to clarify your goals and put them into the appropriate estate planning documents.

Reference: Cleveland Jewish News (May 7, 2019) “Estate planning documents for second marriages”

When Selecting Beneficiaries Gets Overlooked

Here’s one way to mess up your estate plan: naming beneficiaries not by name, but by the generic term “children.” If yours is a blended family, your stepchildren may be out of luck, according to the article “Five mistakes to avoid when naming beneficiaries” from Delco Times. In many states, stepchildren aren’t recognized if the word “children” is used. Use their full names.

Here are more mistakes that people make about beneficiaries:

Failing to name a beneficiary on every account. The great thing about beneficiary designations as that they do not go through probate and beneficiaries receive assets directly from the custodian of the account. However, if you fail to name a beneficiary, the asset, whether they are life insurance proceeds or the entire balance of a 401(k) account, will go to your estate. If it exceeds the statutory limit, then it will need to go through probate.  For retirement accounts, your heirs will also lose the ability to stretch withdrawals over their lifetime.

Failing to name a contingent beneficiary. What if the first person passes away before you do and there’s no contingency beneficiary named? The asset will be treated as if there were no beneficiaries named at all, and it goes through probate.  If both the sole beneficiary and the owner die at the same time, all of the funds must similarly go through probate.

Neglecting to review beneficiary selections on a regular basis. Beneficiary designations override a will, so it’s very important to keep them current. Every few years, review the accounts that you own and see what your beneficiary designation choices are. This is especially necessary if you have been divorced, widowed or remarried. If you fail to take your ex-spouse off an insurance policy, for instance, there’s little that can be done when you die—even if you put your wishes that a new spouse or children receive the proceeds in your will. This will likely cause the issue to go to court, which will soak up precious time, resources, and anxiety.

Not communicating with your partner and family members. Talking with family members and loved ones about your wishes for your legacy and asset distribution is an important way to let them know what to expect when you die. It’s not an easy conversation, but it will be helpful to all. Knowing you have a plan will alleviate them from the worry of the unknown, and it prevents unexpected surprises. There’s no need to talk specific dollar amounts unless you want to. Instead, give them a high-level overview of what your intentions are.

Some families find these conversations easier in the presence of an objective third party, like your estate planning attorney. If your estate plan includes trusts or any complex planning strategies, a family meeting provides a means of explaining the plan and the processes involved.

Reference: Delco Times (October 6, 2019) “Five mistakes to avoid when naming beneficiaries”

Am I Too Young to Think About Estate Planning?

It’s wise for younger generations to consider estate planning early, advises The Cleveland Jewish News in the recent article “Younger generations should focus on estate planning, too.” Don’t be fooled into thinking that an estate plan is only for older people or the ultra-wealthy. In fact, there are many younger adults who may need it, especially if they have been financially successful and also have experienced changes with marriage and families.

This is especially important for young people who are in committed relationships. A young married couple should talk together about their vision and goals for their financial, health, and legal affairs, in case something happens to one of them or within their families.

Estate plans provide some certainty in an otherwise uncertain life. There are many reasons to start early. One reason is that you never know what’s going to happen. You want to make certain that all of your assets are in place.

When creating an estate plan, there are a few things that younger people should consider, such as making sure all their accounts have named a beneficiary. This includes life insurance, retirement, and checking and savings accounts. These beneficiaries need to be reviewed on an ongoing basis and updated for life and family changes.

Many younger adults will be fine with just a will, a financial power of attorney, and a health care power of attorney. However, marriage is a time when people begin to have more complexity in their professional lives. This can include starting a business or becoming leaders at companies and that may require more complex and protective plans.

While younger generations are known to be independent and to try to meet all their needs online, estate plans should be treated differently. There are numerous online tools or ‘do-it-yourself’ strategies, but professional legal assistance can make it an easier and a more thorough process. Remember, when you meet with an attorney, you are not just getting the papers; you are also receiving their guidance and expertise, crafted to address the needs of your specific situation.

Start as early as you can and set the foundation for more complex planning that will come in the future. This preparation will mean less stress for those left behind after you pass away.

Reference: Cleveland Jewish News (September 19, 2019) “Younger generations should focus on estate planning, too”

Why Would I Need to Revise My Will?

OK, great!! You’ve created your will! Now you can it stow away and check off a very important item on your to-do list, right? Well, not entirely.

Thrive Global’s recent article, “7 Reasons Why You Need to Review your Will Right Now,” says it’s extremely important that you regularly update your will (and other documents, such as a revocable living trust) to avoid any potential confusion and extra stress for your family at a very emotional time. As circumstances change, you need to have your will reflect changes in your life. As time passes and your situation changes, your will may become invalid, obsolete or even create added confusion when the time comes for your will to be administered.

New people in your life. We all know life changes. If you have more children after you’ve created your will, review your estate plan to make certain that the wording is still correct. You may also marry or re-marry, or you may have grandchildren that you now want to include. Make a formal update to your estate plan to include the new people who play an important part in your life and to remove those with whom you lose touch.

A beneficiary or other person dies. If a person you had designated as a beneficiary or executor of your will has died and there is no backup, you must make a change or it could result in confusion when the time comes for your estate to be distributed. You should update your will if an individual named in your estate plan passes away before you.

Divorce. If your will was created prior to a divorce, you will probably want to remove your ex from your estate plan. If you have minor children with your ex, you may also want to change your distribution and nominate a guardian of the estate to take care of any money you want to pass to your children. Talk to an estate planning attorney about the changes you need to make.

Your spouse dies. Even though wills should be written in such a way as to always have a backup plan in place, that’s not what always happens. For example, if your husband or wife dies before you, their portion of your estate might go to another family member or another named individual. If this happens, you may want to redistribute your assets to other people.

A child becomes an adult. When a child turns 18 and comes of age, she is no longer a dependent.  Your documents might have included provisions for dependents that now no longer apply to your children, but you would like to still help them out if you were to die. Therefore, you may need to update your will in any areas that provided additional funds for any dependents.

You experience a change in your financial situation. This is a great opportunity to update your will to protect your new financial situation. If you now have more than the minimum amount needed for probate, you may also want to create a trust to avoid probate. In California, if a person has more than $150,000 in their estate when they die (including the value of any houses), they will have to go through probate. Create a trust and change your will to a pour-over will to save your loved ones the trouble of going to court.

You change your mind. It’s your will, and you can change your mind whenever you like.

Reference: Thrive Global (June 17, 2019) “7 Reasons Why You Need to Review your Will Right Now”

What Do I Need to Do Financially, When We Have a Baby?

In addition to all the logistics involved with a new baby, new parents should also take care of financial and legal matters in the months leading up to the big day.

U.S. News & World Report’s recent article, “Financial Steps to Take When You’re Pregnant” reminds us that pregnancy is a terrific time to review your financial life. It’s a great time to assess your budget, emergency savings, estate planning documents, and insurance needs to see if anything needs to be refreshed.

Here are a few things to do to prepare for a new baby:

Employee Benefits. Take a look at your employee benefits or have a conversation with HR to determine how much time you can take off and whether you’ll be paid your salary while on parental leave. This is important because many families are faced with higher living costs by the presence of a new baby, which is often combined with taking parental leave that may cut their take-home pay. New parents may have to use the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which offers eligible employees 12 weeks of unpaid leave, or tap into short-term disability insurance, which typically only replaces a portion of your salary. The amount you receive in short-term disability will also be impacted by whether you pay premiums with pre-tax or post-tax dollars. If you pay with pretax, your benefit will be subject to taxes, which will decrease the overall amount received.

While reviewing these policies, look at your health insurance and see what kind of prenatal visits and pediatric care are covered. You should also look at the terms of your health insurance policy since you could be liable for health insurance premiums during periods where you are taking leave from work. Also, remember that you’ll need to add your baby to your medical insurance within 30 days of the birth.

Budget. Create a new budget that takes into account changes in your income from taking leave and new expenses from having a new baby. You may have to survive several weeks without your normal level of income, so be sure that you have enough saved up to get through that period. After that, create another budget that considers more long-term expenses associated with the new one, such as the cost of childcare, diapers, and formula, all of which can add up.

Life Insurance. Determine if your current life insurance will meet your needs. If you need more, look at term life insurance. It’s usually affordable and expires after a set term, typically anywhere from 10 to 30 years. This policy payout would help a surviving parent or guardian care for your child.

Estate Planning. Consider who would care for your child if both parents were to die before they turn 18. Talk to family or close friends about who you’d like as the guardian of the child. Talk to an estate planning attorney to update (or create) a will and guardianship choices. In addition, ask about formulating a plan for how inheritance, insurance, and other assets will be handled and disbursed if you die while the child is a minor. A revocable living trust can be one way to direct a future inheritance. You can designate your child as the beneficiary and a relative or close friend as the trustee. The trustee will help decide how the money is spent. This trust is usually included in the will and activates after the death of the person who created it.

Beneficiary Designations. Update any beneficiary designations on your retirement and insurance accounts to include your child, but make sure and ask about meeting requirements for how minors can own property.

529 College Savings Account. You should also look into funding a 529 college savings account but don’t feel pressure to contribute a lot. Making certain that your budget, estate, and insurance needs are tailored to meet your new family dynamic are more pressing concerns.

Reference: U.S. News & World Report (August 29, 2019) “Financial Steps to Take When You’re Pregnant”

What Should I Look for in a Trustee?

Selecting a trustee to manage your estate after you pass away is an important decision. Depending on the type of trust you’re creating, the trustee will be in charge of overseeing your assets and the assets of your family. In general, people choose either a friend or family member or alternatively decide to go with a professional trustee or a trust company or corporate trustee for this critical role.

Forbes’s recent article, “How To Choose A Trustee,” helps you identify what you should look for in a trustee.

If you go with a family member or friend, they should be financially savvy and good with money. You want someone who knows something about investing, and preferably someone who has assets of their own that they are investing with an investment advisor.

A good thing about selecting a friend or family member as trustee is that they’re going to be most familiar with you and your family. They will also understand your family’s dynamics.  Family members also usually don’t charge a trustee fee (although they are entitled to do so).

Depending on your family dynamics and personalities, however, your family may be better off with a professional trustee such as a private fiduciary or trust company that has expertise with trust administration. This may eliminate some potentially hard feelings in the family. Because your family member may be too close to the family and may get caught up in the drama, a neutral third party can also act as a barrier to potential fights and arguments. Certain family members may also end up having a power trip and enjoy having total control of your beneficiary’s finances a bit too much.

Trust companies, especially larger ones, will have more structure and oversight to the trust administration, including a trust department that oversees the administration. This will be more expensive, but it may be money well spent. A trust company can make the tough decisions and tell beneficiaries “no” when needed. It’s common to use a trust company when the beneficiaries don’t get along, when there is a problem beneficiary, or when the trustee is responsible for managing a large sum of money. A drawback is that a trust company may be difficult to remove or become inflexible. They also may be stingy about distributions if it will reduce the assets under management that they’re investing. You can solve this by giving a neutral third party, like a trusted family member, the ability to remove and replace the trustee in your trust documents.

Some people may also choose to have an attorney serve as their trustee. The advantage of a trusted attorney serving as a trustee is that they have familiarity with your family if you’ve worked together for some time. There will, however, be a charge for their time spent serving as trustee.

Talk to your estate planning attorney and go through your concerns to find a trustee solution that works for you and your family.

Reference: Forbes (May 31, 2019) “How To Choose A Trustee” 

Do I Need Life Insurance in My Estate Plan?

Not sure why you need to consider life insurance when planning your estate during retirement? You’re not alone if you don’t fully understand the value and benefits that life insurance can give you as part of a retirement plan. Kiplinger’s recent article, “Don’t Overlook Advantages of Making Insurance Part of Your Retirement Plan,” says many folks see life insurance as a way to protect a family from the loss of income in the event a breadwinner passes away during their working years.

If that’s your primary purpose in buying a life insurance policy, it’s a solid one. However, there are many additional benefits that life insurance can bring to your estate plan during retirement, including that income-replacement function.

When a spouse passes away during retirement, the surviving spouse frequently struggles financially. Some living expenses might be less when there’s just one person in a household, but the reduction in costs rarely makes up for the drop in income. One of the two Social Security checks the couple was getting goes away, and a pension payment may also be lost or reduced by 50% or 75%. Life insurance can be leveraged to make certain there’s sufficient cash to compensate for that missing income. This lets the surviving spouse maintain their standard of living in retirement.

Aside from income-replacement, life insurance programs can be good tax planning. There are several sections of the tax laws that give life insurance some income tax and transfer tax benefits. For example, death benefits typically are paid income-tax-free to beneficiaries and may also be free from estate taxes, provided the estate stays under the taxable limit. Also, any benefits paid prior to the insured’s death because of chronic or terminal illness also are tax-free. This is called an accelerated death benefit (ADB) and is a pretty new option. If your insurance doesn’t have this coverage, it can probably be added as a rider. Finally, cash values can grow within a permanent life insurance policy without being subject to income tax.

A life insurance policy can also provide some needed cash flow. Any cash value in the policy that is more than the policy owner’s tax basis can be borrowed income-tax-free as long as the policy stays in effect. But take caution when borrowing against your policy: if you were to pass away prior to paying back your policy loan, the loan balance plus interest accrued is deducted from the death benefit given to the beneficiaries. This may be an issue if your beneficiaries require the entire amount of the intended benefit.

Another consequence to consider is that interest that accrues during the period when the loan remains unpaid is added to the principal balance of the loan. If the loan balance increases above the amount of the cash value, your policy could lapse. That means you could you risk termination by the insurance carrier. If a policy lapses or is surrendered, the loan balance plus interest is considered taxable, and the taxes owed could be pretty hefty based on the initial loan and interest accrued.

Keep in mind, though, that life insurance comes with some costs that should be considered in light of your entire estate plan. There are fees that can include sales charges, administrative expenses, and surrender charges. That’s in addition to the cost of the insurance, which grows as you age.

The most important thing to remember at the end of the day is this: just because you’re retired doesn’t mean you don’t still need the protections and benefits life insurance can offer you and your family.

Reference: Kiplinger (July 10, 2019) “Don’t Overlook Advantages of Making Insurance Part of Your Retirement Plan”